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(Model of Instructional Design)
|ADDIE is an acronym for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. The ADDIE model|
is a framework used by eLearning professionals to create course content.
ADDIE offers a traditional, yet still widely used, approach to instructional
design. It involves five steps:
Analysis: Identify learner characteristics, learning goals, delivery
options, timeline and pedagogical basis.
Design: Outline the projectÕs design strategy, create storyboards, design
the learning experience, develop a prototype and apply visual design.
Development: Compile content assets, integrate technology, troubleshoot
problems, and review / revise the content.
Implementation: Establish a process for training the instructors and
learners to ensure all necessary technology is functional.
Evaluation: Perform a formative and summative evaluation.
|An approach to education in|
which learners receive and work on the same material at different locations
and times. This learning environment enables learners to study at their own
pace and on their own schedule.
|Software used to develop and|
package multimedia eLearning content for online delivery to end learners.
Authoring tools can be used by those without technical skills to produce
modules with text, video, images, audio and animation. Articulate & Adobe
Captivate are examples of authoring tools. These are often paired with
Learning Management Systems.
|Assessment||Process to systematically|
evaluate a learner's progress in a course. It could be either in terms of
skill or knowledge level. These are normally graded.
|Involves a voice-only connection|
with people from different locations connecting with each other. When done
over the internet, it involves the Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP)
|Badges||Badges refer to a method of|
packaging information about achievements and fulfilled goals which is
embedded it into a portable image file; acting as a digital badge.
|Focussed training delivery on a|
single, very specific outcome. For example, how to upload a video to Youtube.
|A combination of traditional,|
face-to-face learning methods with technology based online learning methods.
Could be live too. It is a wonderful way to improve learner's experience. It
saves costs and is convenient for the learners when it is asynchronous. It
cannot be denied that face-to-face training still has its place for practical
|Blog||Short form of web log, a very|
popular way of expression these days. Allows an individual or a group to
share articles often with personal insights.
|Certification||Confirms that a learner has|
successfully completed a training programme. Some times, courses are offered
for free but there is a fee for certification.
|A web-based system that supports|
the creation, deployment and management of digital content. These days,
Learning Management Systems also come with a CMS.
|The strain that working memory|
experiences when information is being processed. Effective instructional
design aims at reducing cognitive load on learners.
|A repository where all|
e-learning assets such as documents, images,audio, video, animation and other packages are all
|Course||Course is a unit of teaching|
that typically lasts one academic term, is led by one or more instructors
(teachers or professors), and has a fixed roster of students. A course is
usually an individual subject.A course is normally divided into 4-5 Modules. E
|A component of the LMS that|
allows for organising all the learning material into a proper structure.
|A collection of courses|
available to learners at any time. Is searchable and properly categorised,
discipline-wise. Learners select the course they wish to learn.
|A course objective specifies a|
behavior, skill, or action that a student can demonstrate if they have
achieved mastery of the objective. Course objectives form the foundation of
the class. Everything in the course should work together to ensure students master
the course objectives.
|A common task undertaken by|
multiple learners. They stand to benefit from others' skills, resources,
experiences and evaluation.
|Tools that allow geographically|
dispersed groups and individuals to work in real-time on learning
assignments. For example: Web conferencing, online discussion forums, and
instant messaging. Google Drive is
|A reusable multi-media resource|
to deliver a single learning outcome. For example, a video that teaches you
how to bind a book. Documents, images, audio, quizzes etc are other DLOs.
|An instructor-led learning|
initiative where there is a pre-determined syllabus.
|Learning that often takes places|
without face-to-face contact without an instructor. DL provide the learners
flexibility to learn on their own time and at their own pace. Some distance
education programmes also have a contact session.
|eLearning||Delivery of learning and|
training through digital resources, often through the internet. Materials can
also be delivered through storage devices. Delivering training through
internet makes it easy for users to learn from anywhere, anytime.
|Facilitator||The online course instructor/s|
that aid in learning online. Is student-centred.
|F2F refers to an environment in|
which teacher and learner are physically present and are able to converse
with little need for digital intervention. Most universities deliver
education through F2F mode making the presence of students in a classroom a
requirement. Also requires huge physical resources and often limits effective
delivery to a small scale.
|Feedback||A very important component of|
elearning. Involves active involvement of both faculty and student. Faculty
provides feedback to ensure that the learner obtains the necessary skillsets
before moving onto learn other things.
|Commonly called Flipped|
Classroom, switches the lecture away from F2F for the learners to learn at
their own pace. F2F sessions are normally focussed on discussion,
interaction, clearing doubts etc
|An assessment of a learning|
programÕs value that occurs while the program activities are in development
or during early implementation. It can be performed during any stage in the
ADDIE process to determine how to best revise and improve the learning program.
In contrast to summative evaluation, formative evaluation focuses on the
|Gamification||A set of learning content and|
activities that engage and motivate learners. Not necessarily, but could
involve a game. For example: Using Angry Birds to explain velocity, energy
etc. Often takes the form of points, badges to motivate learners.
User Interface (GUI)
|Interface that is built around|
graphical icons and visual indicators such as windows, tabs, tiles etc that
make it easy to locate and makes learning interesting.
|Concept similar to blended|
learning (which focuses on a blend of online and offline content), hybrid
learning focuses on curating the right mix of all possible learning content
regardless of whether it's online or offline.
|Places individuals in a virtual|
interactive learning environment, so as to replicate possible scenarios
or/and to teach particular skills or techniques. For example: A virtual
driving class. Simulations, Roleplay, virtual learning environments and
virtual reality (VR) can be considered immersive.
|Learning that occurs outside of|
structured, planned learning initiatives. This learning often occurs
naturally as an individual spends time in the appropriate environment. For
example: Observing and making notes on a Gram Panchayat meeting can help
learners know the structure, functioning, pros and cons of the institution.
|Someone who creates learning|
content based on instructional learning theory and design principals.
|Brief statement of what students|
can expect to learn from a course. Normally in bullet points.
|Statements that specify what|
students will know, be able to do or be able to demonstrate when they have
completed or participated in a Course or Program. SLO's specify an action by
the student that must be observable, measurable and able to be demonstrated.
Management System (LMS)
|Stands for Learning Management|
System. An LMS is software that manages the administration of training.
Typically includes functionality for course catalogues, launching courses,
registering students, tracking student progress and assessments.
|Learning paths are used to build|
structured learning programs that guide learners through a series of courses.
They allow admins to control the timeframe in which courses are made
available to learners and the order in which theyÕre completed.
|A system that works with|
application programming interface (API) to collect, store and retrieve
statements that track learning experiences. Data stored by an LRS can be
presented in a way thatÕs accessible and easy to interpret.
|The ability of computer programs|
to gather information and utilize it to make decisions without being
explicitly programmed to do so. Product or content recommendations in
services such as search engines or social media are examples of machine
|Often known as mLearning--takes|
place on a handheld device such as a mobile phone or a tablet. Often used for
access, anytime, anywhere.
|Microlearning||A way of teaching and delivering|
content in small, very specific bursts. Multiple options are provided, often
to achieve a single learning objective. For example: How to upload a video to
Youtube could be provided by way of a step-by-step document or a video.Learner
chooses which approach to learn from. Often used interchangeably with
|Module||A course is normally divided|
into about 4-5 modules. It has a set of learning outcomes and has a clearly
identifiable set of compentencies that a student is expected to acquire.
Modules are further divided into units.
|MOOC||Acronym for Massive Open Online|
Course. It is a model for online course delivery that is free to the public
and has no limits on attendance. To make them financially sustainable, MOOCs
are often offered free of cost. However, there's a fee to be paid for a
|Software for which the source|
code is publicly available for use and development free of charge. Moodle is
an example of open source software thatÕs used widely in specific kinds of
eLearning environments, like universities. For example: Wordpress is a software
whose source code is available for use and development free of charge.
|Evaluation of specific skills|
conducted via the web. Online assessments are also known as e-assessments and
may consist of quizzes, questionnaires, assignments or surveys. Sometimes,
active participation in other activities such as forums etc are also counted
towards online assessment.
|Outcomes||Knowledge or skills learners are|
expected to gain from engaging with course content. While objectives describe
what an instructor intends learners to learn, outcomes record what learners
actually learned. Uses verbs. These should be measurable. For example: The student should be able to operate a
|Pedagogy||The methodology and practice of|
teaching. Pedagogy considers theories of learning and student needs and
applies them to teaching strategies. It informs teachersÕ actions, judgments,
decisions and interactions with students.
|A question or learning activity|
that serves as an informal validation or a question that precedes a test,
designed to ensure that the learner has understood the concepts clearly.
|Prerequisite||Basic requirement in a process|
that must be fulfilled before moving onto the next step. Could be an entire
course or set of courses. Could also be a set of modules.
|Usually refers to exercises|
which involve a couple of people who
complete interactive tasks, facilitated by a computer program. As the
names suggest, this normally involves the people involved being invited to
perform roles, with Customer and Assistant being a typical example. Or a
psychologist and patient, etc.
|Software that lets visually|
challenged users access computer screens and web pages. Screen readers read
out the text, or text equivalent, on computer screens and web pages.
|An individual recognizes their|
own learning needs, develops personal goals, identifies appropriate resources
and evaluates their learning outcomes. This learning is performed
independently without the guidance of an instructor.
|Learner is able to consume|
educational content at a rate which suits them, as facilitated by
instructional design that allows the learner to control the rate of content
|Simulation||A learning environment that|
allows the learner to role-play in a scenario. Simulations enable the learner
to practice skills in a risk-free environment. For example: A nursing
assessment that enables students to think and act like a nurse before getting
into a real life situation.
Sign On (SSO)
|An authentication service that|
allows users to sign into multiple platforms using a single set of
|A simple skill gap analysis|
consists of a list of skills required along with a rating of the learnerÕs
level for each skill. Ratings below a predetermined level identify a skill
training/educational courses in a collaborative forum in which ideas can be
discussed and concepts freely explored contributes to much higher engagement
and retention than more traditional teacher/learner environments.
|Business skills such as|
communication and presentation, professional development, project and time
management, team building and personal development.
|A person with a high degree of|
authority and expertise in a certain field.
|A course structure that demands|
that all learners be online simultaneously, regardless of geographical
location. Provides forreal-time
interaction between instructors and learners.
Asynchronous allows learners to learn at their own pace. Of late, the
preferred mode of delivery is a combination of asynchronous and a bit of
synchronous. This accounts for issues such as accessiblity to a large extent.
|Computer-based activity where|
students interact with an experimental apparatus or other activity via a
computer interface. For example: Creating a virtual private network on a
|Webinar||An online workshop where an|
individual or multiple experts host a session that is then streamed